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Jürgen Sauer

Job: Professor
Office: RM C-1.117
Rue P.A. de Faucigny 2
1700 Fribourg
Phone: +41 26 300 7622
eMail: juergen.sauer@unifr.ch
Unit: Kognitive Ergonomie und Arbeitspsychologie      


Journal Articles (peer reviewed)


  • Sauer J. and Chavaillaz A. (in press). How operators make use of wide-choice adaptable automation: observations from a series of experimental studies. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science.
  • Sauer J., Chavaillaz A., and Wastell D. (in press). On the effectiveness of performance-based adaptive automation. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science. 
  • Sauer J. and Chavaillaz A. (in press). The use of adaptable automation: effects of changes in system reliability and extended skill lay-off. Applied Ergonomics.
  • Chavaillaz A. and Sauer J. (in press). Operator adaptation to changes in system reliability under adaptable automation. Ergonomics.
  • Schmutz S., Sonderegger A. and Sauer J. (in press). Implementing recommendations from web accessibility guidelines: a comparative study of nondisabled users and users with visual impairments. Human Factors.
  • Schmutz S., Sonderegger A. and Sauer J. (in press). Implementing recommendations from web accessibility guidelines: Would they also provide benefits to nondisabled users? Human Factors.


  • Sauer J., Chavaillaz A. and Wastell D. (2016). Experience of automation failures in training: effects on trust, automation bias, complacency, and performance. Ergonomics, 59, 767-780.
  • Chavaillaz A., Wastell D. and Sauer J. (2016). Effects of extended lay-off period on performance and operator trust under adaptable automation. Applied Ergonomics, 53, 241-251.
  • Chavaillaz A., Wastell D. and Sauer J. (2016). Sysstem reliability, performance and trust in adaptable automation. Applied Ergonomics, 52, 333-342.
  • Sonderegger A. and Sauer J. (2015). The role of non-visual aesthetics in consumer product evaluation. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 84, 19-32.
  • Sonderegger, A., Schmutz S. and Sauer J. (2015). The influence of age in usability testing. Applied Ergonomics, 52, 291–300.
  • Sonderegger A., Sauer J. and Eichenberger J. (2014). Expressive and classical aesthetics: two distinct concepts with highly similar effect patterns in user-artefact interaction. Behaviour & Information Technology, 33, 1180-1191.

2012 -2013

  • Uebelbacher A., Sonderegger A. and Sauer J. (2013). Effects of perceived prototype fidelity in usability testing under different conditions of observer presence. Interacting with Computers, 25(1), 91-101.
  • Sonderegger A. and Sauer J. (2013). The influence of socio-cultural background and product value in usability testing. Applied Ergonomics, 44, 341-349.
  • Sauer J., Nickel P. and Wastell D. (2013). Designing automation for complex work environments under different levels of stress. Applied Ergonomics, 44, 119-127.
  • Sauer J., Kao C.S. and Wastell D. (2012). A comparison of adaptive and adaptable automation under different levels of environmental stress. Ergnomics, 55, 840-853.
  • Sonderegger A., Zbinden G., Uebelbacher A. and Sauer J. (2012). The influence of product aesthetics and usability over the course of time: a longitudinal field experiment. Ergonomics, 55(7), 713-730.


  • Sauer J. and Sonderegger A. (2011). The influence of product aesthetics and user state in usability testing. Behaviour & Information Technology, 30(6), 787-796.
  • Sauer J., Kao C.S., Wastell D. and Nickel P. (2011). Explicit control of adaptive automation under different levels of environmental stress. Ergonomics, 54, 755-766.
  • Kluge A., Ritzmann S., Burkolter D. and Sauer J. (2011). The interaction of drill and practice and error training with individual differences. Cognition, Technology & Work, 13, 103-120.
  • Sauer J. and Sonderegger A. (2011). Methodological issues in product evaluation: the influence of testing environment and task scenario. Applied Ergonomics, 42, 487-494.


  • Sauer J., Darioly A., Schmid Mast M., Schmid P. and Bischof N. (2010). A multi-level approach of evaluating crew resource management training: a lab-based study examining communication skills as a function of team congruence. Ergonomics, 53, 1311-1324.
  • Kluge A., Sauer J., Burkolter, D. and Ritzmann S. (2010). Designing training for temporal and adaptive transfer: a comparative evaluation of three training methods for process control tasks, Journal of Educational Computing Research, 43, 327-353.
  • Burkolter D., Meyer B., Kluge A. and Sauer J. (2010). Assessment of structural knowledge as a training outcome in process control environments. Human Factors, 52, 119-138.
  • Burkolter D., Kluge A., Sauer J. and Ritzmann S. (2010). A comparative study of three training methods for enhancing process control performance: emphasis shift training, situation awareness training, and drill and practice. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 976-986.
  • Sonderegger A. and Sauer J. (2010). The influence of design aesthetics in usability testing: effects on user performance and perceived usability. Applied Ergonomics, 41, 403-410.
  • Sauer J., Seibel K. and Rüttinger B. (2010). The influence of user expertise and prototype fidelity in usability tests. Applied Ergonomics, 41, 130-140.


  • Sauer J. and Sonderegger A. (2009). The influence of prototype fidelity and aesthetics of design in usability tests: effects on user behaviour, subjective evaluation and emotion. Applied Ergonomics, 40, 670-677.
  • Sauer J., Wastell D. and Schmeink C. (2009). Designing for the home: a comparative study of support aids for central heating systems. Applied Ergonomics, 40, 165-174.
  • Kluge A., Sauer J., Schüler K. and Burkolter D. (2009). Designing training for process control simulators: a review of empirical findings and current practices. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 10, 489-509.
  • Burkolter D., Kluge A., Sauer J. and Ritzmann S. (2009). The predictive qualities of operator characteristics for process control performance: the influence of personality and cognitive variables. Ergonomics, 52 (3), 302-311. 
  • Sonderegger A. and Sauer J. (2009). The influence of laboratory set-up in usability tests: effects on user performance, subjective ratings and physiological measures. Ergonomics, 52 (11), 1350 - 1361.
  • Sauer, J., Burkolter, D., Kluge, A., Ritzmann, S. and Schüler, K. (2008). The effects of heuristic rule training on operator performance in a simulated process control environment. Ergonomics, 51 (7), 953-967.
  • Sauer J., Franke, H. and Rüttinger B. (2008). Designing interactive consumer products: utility of low-fidelity prototypes and effectiveness of enhanced control labelling. Applied Ergonomics, 39, 71-85. 


  • Sauer J., Schmeink C. and Wastell D. (2007). Feedback quality and environmentally-friendly use of domestic central heating systems. Ergonomics, 50 (6), 795-813.
  • Sauer J. and Rüttinger B. (2007). Automation and decision support in interactive consumer products. Ergonomics, 50 (6), 902-919.
  • Hockey G.R.J., Sauer J. and Wastell D.G. (2007). Adaptability of training in simulated process control: comparison of knowledge- and rule-based guidance under task changes and environmental stress. Human Factors, 49 (1), 158-174.
  • Sauer J., Felsing T., Franke H. and Rüttinger B. (2006). Cognitive diversity and team performance in a complex multiple task environment. Ergonomics, 49 (10) 934-954. 


  • Sauer J. and Rüttinger B. (2004). Environmental conservation in the domestic domain: the influence of technical design features and person-based factors. Ergonomics, 47 (10), 1053-1072.
  • Wiese B.S., Sauer J. und Rüttinger B. (2004). Umweltrelevante Kaufkriterien aus KonsumentInnensicht: Methoden-, personen- und produktspezifische Einflüsse. Umweltpsychologie, 8 (2), 20-40.
  • Wiese B.S., Sauer J. and Rüttinger B. (2004). Consumers' use of written product information. Ergonomics, 47 (11), 1180-1194.
  • Sauer J., Wiese B.S. and Rüttinger B. (2004). Ecological performance of electrical consumer products: the influence of automation and information-based measures. Applied Ergonomics, 35 (1), 37-47.


  • Hockey G.R.J., Healey A., Crawshaw C.M., Wastell D. and Sauer J. (2003). Cognitive demands of collision avoidance in simulated ship control. Human Factors, 45 (2), 252-265.
  • Sauer J. (2003). CAMS as a tool for human factors research in spaceflight. Acta Astronautica, 54, 127-132.
  • Sauer J., Wastell D., Hockey G.R.J., Crawshaw C.M. and Downing J.C. (2003). Designing micro-worlds of transportation systems: the computer-aided bridge operation task. Computers in Human Behavior, 19 (2), 169-183.
  • Sauer J., Wastell D., Hockey G.R.J. and Earle F. (2003). Performance in a complex multiple-task environment during a laboratory-based simulation of occasional night work. Human Factors, 45 (4), 657-669.
  • Sauer J., Wiese B.S. and Rüttinger B. (2003). Designing low-complexity electrical consumer products for ecological use. Applied Ergonomics, 34 (6), 521-531.


  • Sauer J., Wastell D.G., Hockey G.R.J., Crawshaw C.M., Ishak M. and Downing J.C. (2002). Effects of display design on performance in a simulated ship navigation environment. Ergonomics, 45 (5), 329-347.
  • Sauer J., Wiese B.S. and Rüttinger B. (2002). Improving ecological performance of electrical consumer products: the role of design-based measures and user variables. Applied Ergonomics, 33 (4), 297-307.
  • Wiese B.S., Sauer J. and Rüttinger B. (2001). Umweltgerechte Produktentwicklung: Konzepte, Befunde und Perspektiven eines interdisziplinären Forschungsprojektes. Umweltpsychologie, 5 (1), 52-68.


  • Sauer J. (2000). Prospective memory: a secondary task with promise. Applied Ergonomics, 31, 131-137.
  • Sauer J. (2000). The use of micro-worlds for human factors research in extended spaceflight. Acta Astronautica, 46 (1), 37-45.
  • Sauer J., Hockey G.R.J. and Wastell D.G. (2000). Effects of training on short- and long-term skill retention in a complex multiple-task environment. Ergonomics, 43 (12), 2043-2064.
  • Sauer J., Schramme S. and Rüttinger B. (2000). Knowledge acquisition in ecological product design: the effects of computer-mediated communication and elicitation method. Behaviour & Information Technology, 19 (5), 315-327. 
  • Sauer J., Wastell D. and Hockey G.R.J. (2000). A conceptual framework for designing micro-worlds for complex work domains: a case study of the Cabin Air Management System. Computers in Human Behavior, 16, 45-58.
  • Sauer J., Zimolong B. and Ingendoh S. (2000). Maintaining production quality in advanced mechanical engineering organizations: The compensatory function of the CNC-machine operator. Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, 10 (4), 465-480.


  • Sauer J., Hockey G.R.J. and Wastell D. (1999). Maintenance of complex performance during a 135-day spaceflight simulation. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 70 (3), 236-244.
  • Sauer J., Hockey G.R.J. and Wastell D. (1999). Performance evaluation in analogue space environments: adaptation during an 8-month Antarctic wintering-over expedition. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 70 (3), 230-235.
  • Hockey G.R.J., Wastell D. and Sauer J. (1998). Effects of sleep deprivation and user interface on complex performance: a multilevel analysis of compensatory control. Human Factors, 40 (2), 233-253.
  • Rivolier J., Bachelard C., Cazes G., Gaud R., Le-Scanff C., Rosnet E., Novikov M., Gushin V., Efimov V., Eskov K., Vinokhodova A., Hockey G.R.J. and Sauer J. (1998). A methodological study in a space flight simulation context. European Review of Applied Psychology, 48 (3), 211-212.
  • Shryane N.M., Westerman S.J., Crawshaw C.M., Hockey G.R.J. and Sauer J. (1998). Task analysis for the investigation of human error in safety-critical software design: a convergent methods approach. Ergonomics, 41 (11), 1719-1736.
  • Sauer J., Wastell D. and Hockey G.R.J. (1997). Skill maintenance in extended spaceflight: A human factors analysis of space and analogue work environments. Acta Astronautica, 39 (8), 579-587.
  • Sauer J. and Anderson N. (1992). Have we misread the psychology of innovation? A case study from two NHS hospitals. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 13, 2, 17-21.

Books and Book Chapters

Since 2003

  • Sonderegger, A. and Sauer, J. (2013). Human factors in multimodal information management. In H. Bourlard and A. Popescu-Belis (eds.): Interactive Multimodal Information Management. Lausanne: EPFL Press, pp. 231-241.
  • Sauer J. and Rüttinger, B. (2008). Designing technology for work and home applications. In N. Chmiel (ed). Work and organizational psychology: a European perspective. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 471-476.
  • Rüttinger B., Wiese B.S. and Sauer J. (2007). Psychologie des Anbieters. In L. von Rosenstiel und D. Frey (Hrsg.): Enzyklopädie der Psychologie: Marktpsychologie. Göttingen: Hogrefe.
  • Sauer J. and Rüttinger B. (2006). Design of consumer products: a user-centered approach . In W. Karwowski (ed.): International Encyclopedia of Ergonomics and Human Factors. New York: Taylor & Francis. 
  • Sauer J. and Rüttinger B. (2006). Nutzerorientierte Gestaltung von Gebrauchsgütern. In B. Zimolong und U. Konradt (Hrsg.): Enzyklopädie der Psychologie: Ingenieurpsychologie. Göttingen: Hogrefe.
  • Sauer J., Franke, H. and Rüttinger B. (2005). Ergonomics in environmentally-friendly product design. In E. Abele, A. Anderl, and H. Birkhofer (eds.): Environmentally-friendly product development, 184-193, London: Springer.
  • Wiese B.S., Sauer J. and Rüttinger B. (2004). Betriebliche Sozialisation. In E. Gaugler, W.A. Oechsler und W. Weber (Hrsg.): Handwörterbuch des Personalwesens. Stuttgart: Schaeffer- Poeschel, 1733-1741.
  • Felsing T., Rüttinger B. and Sauer J. (2003). Kulturelle Divergenzen bei Unternehmenszusammenschlüssen - Anmerkungen aus psychologischer Perspektive. In H.-J. Wurl (Hrsg.): Industrielles Beteiligungscontrolling. Stuttgart: Schaeffer-Poeschel, 497-523.


  • Wiese B.S., Sauer J. and Felsing T. (2002). Ökologische Produkte: die Kundenperspektive. In: Birkhofer, H.; Spath, D.; Winzer, P.; Müller, D. (Hrsg.): Umweltgerechte Produktentwicklung - Ein Leitfaden für Entwicklung und Konstruktion. Berlin: Beuth Verlag, 2000. 4. Ergänzungslieferung (Dezember 2002), Kap. 2.4.6.
  • Sauer J., Wiese B.S. and Rüttinger B. (2001). Utilization phase as a critical element in ecological design. In M.S. Hundal (ed.): Mechanical life cycle handbook: good environmental design and manufacturing. New York: Marcel Dekker, 257-284.
  • Rüttinger B. and Sauer J. (2000). Konflikt und Konfliktlösen: Kritische Situationen erkennen und bewältigen. Leonberg: Rosenberger.
  • Hockey G.R.J. and Sauer J. (1996). Cognitive fatigue and complex decision-making under prolonged isolation and confinement. In S.L. Bonting (ed.): Advances in Space Biology and Medicine, Vol. 5. Greenwich: JAI Press, 309-330.

Short CV

Since 2004 Professor of Cognitive Ergonomics at the University of Fribourg
2003 Publication-based "Habilitation" on "Human performance in low and high complexity systems: adaptation processes, intervention measures and research methods"
1999-2004 Research fellow / lecturer at the Institute of Psychology at Darmstadt University
1997-98 Research fellow at the Psychology Department of Bochum University
1997 PhD in Psychology from Hull University on “Human skill maintenance in complex work environments”
1992-97 Research Assistant at the Psychology Department of Hull University
1990 M.Sc. in Occupational Psychology from Sheffield University
Département de Psychologie / Departement für Psychologie - R. Faucigny 2 - 1700 Fribourg / Freiburg - Tel +41 26 300 7620 - Fax +41 26 / 300 9712 - psychologie [at] unifr.ch - uni