Changes Due to Regular Anatomical Terminology Rules

Informatics Working Group of FIPAT
Robert Baud (Switzerland), Pierre Sprumont (Switzerland), Paul E. Neumann (Canada)
Several terms in Terminologia anatomica (Thieme, 1998) do not meet the recommendations for a Regular anatomical terminology (RAT). RAT was proposed to make interpretation of the Latin terms less ambiguous for all users of human anatomical nomenclature, including students and translators, and to advance the goal of making the terminology machine-readable. The RAT rules include:
    1. Only nouns and adjectives are allowed,
    2. Adjectives follow the nouns they modify,
    3. Words in genitive case follow words in nominative case,
    4. Punctuation is not allowed within terms.
In the online version of TA98, rules 1 and 4 were almost fully applied, and rules 2 and 3 were applied when the Latin syntax analyzer software (written by RB) was unable to parse terms because of ambiguity. A listing of changes due to this partial application of RAT rules follows. The most common problems that led to changes included use of conjunctions and prepositions, and ambiguity caused by similarity of nominative singular and genitive singular forms of third declension adjectives.

 

TA code and terms Problem Remedy
A01.1.00.050
Cavitas abdominis et pelvis
Abdominopelvic cavity
Use of conjunction (et). Cavitas abdominopelvica
A01.2.00.000
Plana, lineae et regiones
Planes, lines and regions
Use of conjunction (et). Res referentes
Reference entities

A01.2.03.001
Regiones thoracicae anteriores et laterales
Anterior and lateral thoracic regions

Use of conjunction (et). Regiones thoracicae anterolaterales
A02.0.00.044
Primarium
Primary
Absence of noun. Centrum primarium ossificationis
Primary ossification centre
A02.0.00.045
Secundarium
Secondary
Absence of noun. Centrum secundarium ossificationis
Secondary ossification centre
A02.1.03.009
Incisura supraorbitalis/foramen supraorbitale
Supra-orbital notch/foramen
Use of punctuation (/); Terms are not synonyms; Foramen more common than notch. Foramen supraorbitale; Incisura supraorbitalis
Supra-orbital foramen; Supra-orbital notch
A02.1.03.010
Incisura frontalis/foramen frontale
Frontal notch/foramen
Use of punctuation (/); Terms are not synonyms; Notch more common than foramen. Incisura frontalis; Foramen frontale
Frontal notch; Frontal foramen
A02.5.10.017
Sulcus tendinis musculi flexoris hallucis longi [tali]
Groove for tendon of flexor hallucis longus
Word order: ambiguity (longi modifies musculi, not hallucis). Sulcus tendinis musculi longi flexoris hallucis [tali]
A02.5.11.007
Sulcus tendinis musculi flexoris hallucis longi [calcanei]
Groove for tendon of flexor hallucis longus
Word order: ambiguity (longi modifies musculi, not hallucis) Sulcus tendinis musculi longi flexoris hallucis [calcanei]
A03.3.04.003
Lig. capitis costae radiatum
Radiate ligament of head of rib
Word order: ambiguity (radiatum modifies ligamentum, not costae) Lig. radiatum capitis costae
A03.3.04.004
Lig. capitis costae intraarticulare
Intra-articular ligament of head of rib
Word order: ambiguity (intraarticulare modifies ligamentum, not costae) Lig. intraarticulare capitis costae
A03.6.09.002
Lig. capitis fibulae anterius
Anterior ligament of fibular head
Word order: ambiguity (anterius modifies ligamentum, not fibulae) Lig. anterius capitis fibulae
A03.6.09.003
Lig. capitis fibulae posterius
Posterior ligament of fibular head
Word order: ambiguity (posterius modifies ligamentum, not fibulae) Lig. posterius capitis fibulae

A04.0.00.032
Fascia capitis et colli
Fascia of head and neck

Use of conjunction (et) (1) Fascia craniocervicalis
(2) Creation of new entity.
A04.1.04.016
Fasciae capitis
Fascia of head
A04.1.03.032
M. levator labii superioris alaeque nasi
Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi
Use of conjunction (-que). Musculus levator nasolabialis
A04.1.06.001
Musculi palati mollis et faucium
Muscles of soft palate and fauces
Use of conjunction (et) Musculi palati mollis
A04.2.02.003
M. rectus capitis lateralis
Rectus capitis lateralis
Word order: ambiguity (lateralis modifies musculus, not capitis) M. rectus lateralis capitis
A04.5.02.006
Fascia abdominis parietalis
Parietal abdominal fascia
Word order: ambiguity (parietalis modifies fascia, not abdominis) Fascia parietalis abdominis
A04.5.04.019
Insertio partis superficialis musculi sphincteris ani externi
Attachment of superficial external anal sphincter
Word order: ambiguity (externi modifies musculi, not ani). Insertio partis superficialis musculi externi sphincteris ani
A04.6.02.028
M. flexor carpi radialis
Flexor carpi radialis
Word order: ambiguity (radialis modifies musculus, not carpi). M. flexor radialis carpi
A04.6.02.040
M. extensor carpi radialis longus
Extensor carpi radialis longus
Word order: ambiguity (radialis and longus modify musculus, not carpi). Musculus radialis longus extensor carpi
A04.6.02.041
M. extensor carpi radialis brevis
Extensor carpi radialis brevis
Word order: ambiguity (radialis and brevis modify musculus, not carpi). Musculus radialis brevis extensor carpi
A04.6.02.050
M. extensor pollicis brevis
Extensor pollicis brevis
Word order: ambiguity (brevis modifies musculus, not pollicis). Musculus brevis extensor pollicis
A04.6.02.054
M. abductor pollicis brevis
Abductor pollicis brevis
Word order: ambiguity (brevis modifies musculus, not pollicis). Musculus brevis abductor pollicis
A04.6.02.055
M. flexor pollicis brevis
Flexor pollicis brevis
Word order: ambiguity (brevis modifies musculus, not pollicis). Musculus brevis flexor pollicis
A04.6.02.063
M. flexor digiti minimi brevis
Flexor digiti minimi brevis
Word order: ambiguity (brevis modifies musculus, not digiti). Musculus brevis flexor digiti minimi
A04.7.01.009
Compartimentum cruris laterale; Compartimentum cruris fibularium; Compartimentum cruris peroneorum
Lateral compartment of leg; Fibular compartment of leg; Peroneal compartment of leg
Latin synonyms are complex, potentially misleading, expressions. Compartimentum cruris laterale; Compartimentum fibulare cruris; Compartimentum peroneum cruris
A04.7.02.054
M. extensor hallucis brevis
Extensor hallucis brevis
Word order: ambiguity (brevis modifies musculus, not hallucis) M. brevis extensor hallucis
A04.7.02.057
M. flexor hallucis brevis
Flexor hallucis brevi
Word order: ambiguity (brevis modifies musculus, not hallucis). Musculus brevis flexor hallucis
A04.7.02.066
M. flexor digiti minimi brevis
Flexor digiti minimi brevis
Word order: ambiguity (brevis modifies musculus, not digiti). Musculus brevis flexor digiti minimi
A04.7.03.025
Retinaculum musculorum extensorum superius
Superior extensor retinaculum
Word order: ambiguity (superius modifies retinaculum, not extensorum). Retinaculum superius musculorum extensorum
A04.7.03.027
Retinaculum musculorum extensorum inferius
Inferior extensor retinaculum
Word order: ambiguity (inferius modifies retinaculum, not extensorum). Retinaculum inferius musculorum extensorum
A04.8.04.005
Vagina tendinis musculi flexoris pollicis longi
Tendinous sheath of flexor pollicis longus
Word order: ambiguity (longi modifies musculi, not pollicis). Vagina tendinis musculi longi flexoris pollicis
A04.8.04.006
Vagina tendinis musculi flexoris carpi radialis 
Tendinous sheath of flexor carpi radialis
Word order: ambiguity (radialis modifies musculi, not carpi). Vagina tendinis musculi radialis flexoris carpi
A04.8.04.009
Vagina tendinum musculorum abductoris longi et extensoris pollicis brevis
Tendinous sheath of abductor longus and extensor pollicis brevis
Use of conjunction (et). Vagina communis tendinum musculorum abductoextensorum pollicis
Tendinous sheath of abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis
A04.8.04.010
Vagina tendinum musculorum extensorum carpi radialium
Tendinous sheath of extensores carpi radiales
Word order: ambiguity (radialium modifies musculorum, not carpi). Vagina tendinum musculorum radialium extensorum carpi
A04.8.04.011
Vagina tendinis musculi extensoris pollicis longi
Tendinous sheath of extensor pollicis longus
Word order: ambiguity (longi modifies musculi, not pollicis). Vagina tendinis musculi longi extensoris pollicis
A04.8.04.012
Vagina tendinum musculorum extensoris digitorum et extensoris indicis
Tendinous sheath of extensor digitorum and extensor indicis
Use of conjunction (et). Vagina communis tendinum musculorum extensorum
A04.8.04.013
Vagina tendinis musculi extensoris digiti minimi brevis
Tendinous sheath of extensor digiti minimi brevis
Word order: ambiguity (brevis modifies musculi, not digiti). Vagina tendinis musculi brevis extensoris digiti minimi
A04.8.04.014
Vagina tendinis musculi extensoris carpi ulnaris
Tendinous sheath of extensor carpi ulnaris
Word order: ambiguity (ulnaris modifies musculi, not carpi). Vagina tendinis musculi ulnaris extensoris carpi
A04.8.05.013
Bursa musculi bicipitis femoris superior
Superior bursa of biceps femoris
Word order: genitive complement before adjective in nominative case. Bursa superior musculi bicipitis femoris
A04.8.05.023
Bursa subtendinea musculi bicipitis femoris inferior
Inferior subtendinous bursa of biceps femoris
Word order: genitive complement before adjective in nominative case. Bursa subtendinea inferior musculi bicipitis femoris
A04.8.06.004
Vagina tendinis musculi extensoris hallucis longi
Tendinous sheath of extensor hallucis longus
Word order: ambiguity (longi modifies musculi, not hallucis). Vagina tendinis musculi longi extensoris hallucis
A04.8.06.005
Vagina tendinum musculi extensoris digitorum longi
Tendinous sheath of extensor digitorum longus
Word order: ambiguity (longi modifies musculi, not digitorum). Vagina tendinum musculi longi extensoris digitorum
A04.8.06.007
Vagina tendinum musculi flexoris digitorum longi
Tendinous sheath of flexor digitorum longus
Word order: ambiguity (longi modifies musculi, not digitorum). Vagina tendinum musculi longi flexoris digitorum
A04.8.06.009
Vagina tendinis musculi flexoris hallucis longi
Tendinous sheath of flexor hallucis longus
Word order: ambiguity (longi modifies musculi, not hallucis). Vagina tendinis musculi longi flexoris hallucis
A05.6.01.005
Stratum longitudinale; Stratum helicoidale longi gradus
Longitudinal layer; Long pitch helicoidal layer
Word order in Latin synonym: adjective (longi) precedes the noun (gradus) it modifies. Stratum helicoidale gradus longi
A05.6.01.006
Stratum circulare; Stratum helicoidale brevis gradus
Circular layer; Short pitch helicoidal layer
Word order in Latin synonym: adjective (brevis) precedes the noun (gradus) it modifies. Stratum helicoidale gradus brevis
A05.8.01.033
Segmentatio hepatis: lobi, partes, divisiones et segmenta
Hepatic segmentation: lobes, parts, divisions and segments
This is list, not a single term; Use of punctation (colon and comma); Use of conjunction (et). Segmentatio hepatis
Hepatic segmentation
A06.1.02.002
Nares
Nares, Nostrils
This is a right and left pair. By convention, should be singular. Naris
Naris, Nostril
A06.1.02.003
Choanae
Choanae, Posterior nasal apertures
This is a right and left pair. By convention, should be singular. Choana
Choana, Posterior nasal aperture
A06.1.02.031
Meatus nasi communis
Common nasal meatus
Word order: ambiguity (communis modifies meatus, not nasi). Meatus communis nasi
A06.2.02.004
Lamina dextra/sinistra
Right/left lamina
Use of punctuation (/). Lamina
Lamina
A06.5.02.002
Pulmo dexter, lobus superior
Right lung, superior lobe
Use of punctuation (,). Inversion of the terms gives the wrong head word. Lobus superior pulmonis dextri
Superior lobe of right lung
A06.5.02.006
Pulmo dexter, lobus medius
Right lung, middle lobe
Use of punctuation (,). Inversion of the terms gives the wrong head word. Lobus medius pulmonis dextri
Middle lobe of right lung
A06.5.02.009
Pulmo dexter, lobus inferior
Right lung, inferior lobe
Use of punctuation (,). Inversion of the terms gives the wrong head word. Lobus inferior pulmonis dextri
Inferior lobe of right lung
A06.5.02.015
Pulmo sinister, lobus superior
Left lung, superior lobe
Use of punctuation (,). Inversion of the terms gives the wrong head word. Lobus superior pulmonis sinistri
Superior lobe of left lung
A06.5.02.020
Pulmo sinister, lobus inferior
Left lung, inferior lobe
Use of punctuation (,). Inversion of the terms gives the wrong head word. Lobus inferior pulmonis sinistri
Inferior lobe of left lung
A08.3.01.012
M. trigoni vesicae superficialis
Superficial trigone
Word order: ambiguity (superficialis modifies musculus, not vesicae). M. superficialis trigoni vesicae
A08.3.01.013
M. trigoni vesicae profundus
Deep trigone
Word order: ambiguity (profundus modifies musculus, not vesicae). M. profundus trigoni vesicae
A09.3.08.010
Lobi prostatae dexter et sinister
Right and left lobes of prostate
Use of conjunction (et).  Lobi prostatae
Lobes of prostate
A09.5.02.003
M. transversus perinei superficialis
Superficial transverse perineal muscle
Word order: ambiguity (superficialis modifies musculus, not perinei). M. superficialis transversus perinei
A10.1.00.000
Cavitas abdominis et pelvis
Abdominopelvic cavity
Use of conjunction (et). Cavitas abdominopelvica
A10.1.02.401
Recessus, fossae et plicae
Recesses, fossae and folds
This is a list, not a single term; Use of conjunction (et). Peritoneum abdominale
Abdominal peritoneum
A12.1.00.005
Facies pulmonalis dextra/sinistra
Right/left pulmonary surface
Use of punctuation (/). (1) Facies pulmonalis dextra
Right pulmonary surface
(2) New entity (A12.1.00.031)
Facies pulmonalis sinistra
Left pulmonary surface

A12.1.00.012
Ventriculus cordis dexter/sinister
Right/left ventricle

Use of punctuation (/). Ventriculus cordis
Ventricle
A12.1.00.017
Atrium cordis dexter/sinister
Right/left atrium
Use of punctuation (/). Atrium cordis
Atrium
A12.1.00.027
Anulus fibrosus dexter/sinister
Right/left fibrous ring
Use of punctuation (/). (1) Anulus fibrosus dexter
Right fibrous ring
(2) New entity (A12.1.00.032)
Anulus fibrosus sinister
Left fibrous ring
A12.2.01.202
Lig. arteriosum (Ductus arteriosus)
Ligamentum arteriosum (Ductus arteriosus)
Lig. arteriosum (Ductus arteriosus)
Ligamentum arteriosum (Ductus arteriosus).
Creation of a new entity A12.2.01.221 (Ductus arteriosus)
A12.2.05.068
R. anastomoticus cum a. lacrimali
Anastomotic branch with lacrimal artery
Use of preposition (cum). Ramus anastomoticus lacrimalis

A12.2.06.026 (in chapetr A15)
A. centralis retinae, pars intraocularis
Central retinal artery, intraocular part

Use of punctuation (comma); Inversion of the terms gives the wrong head word. The order of words was changed:
Pars intraocularis a. centralis retinae
Intraocular part of central retinal artery
A12.2.06.028
R. anastomoticus cum a. meningea media
Anastomotic branch with middle meningeal artery
Use of preposition (cum).  Ramus anastomoticus mediomeningeus
A12.2.07.008 
Rr. genus capsulae internae
Branches to internal capsule, genu
Use of punctuation (comma) in English equivalent term. Branches to genu of internal capsule.
A12.2.07.009
Rr. cruris posterior capsulae internae
Branches to internal capsule, posterior limb
Use of punctuation (comma) in English equivalent term. Branches to posterior limb of internal capsule
A12.2.07.010
Rr. partis retrolentiformis capsulae internae
Branches to internal capsule, retrolentiform limb
Use of punctuation (comma) in English equivalent term. Branches to retrolentiform limb of internal capsule
A12.2.07.099
R. corporis callosi dorsalis
Dorsal branch to corpus callosum
Word order: ambiguity (dorsalis modifies ramus, not corporis). R. dorsalis corporis callosi
A12.2.16.021
A. circumflexa femoris medialis
Medial circumflex femoral artery
Word order: ambiguity (medialis modifies arteria, not femoris). A. circumflexa medialis femoris
A12.2.16.027
A. circumflexa femoris lateralis
Lateral circumflex femoral artery
Word order: ambiguity (lateralis modifies arteria, not femoris). A. circumflexa lateralis femori
A12.3.01.006
V(v.) ventriculi sinistri posterior(es)
Posterior vein(s) of left ventricle
Use of punctuation (parentheses); Word order: adjective in nominative case after genitive complement. Vv. posteriores ventriculi sinistri
Posterior veins of left ventricle
A12.3.01.012
V(v). ventriculi dextri anterior(es); Vv.  cardiacae anteriores; Vv. cordis anteriores
Anterior vein(s) of right ventricle; Anterior cardiac veins
Use of punctuation (parentheses); Word order: adjective in nominative case after genitive complement. Vv. anteriores ventriculi dextri
Anterior veins of right ventricle
A12.3.02.110
Pars intralobaris (intersegmentalis)
Intralobar part
Use of punctuation (parentheses).  Pars intralobaris; Pars intersegmentalis
A12.3.06.045
V. pontis anterolateralis
Anterolateral pontine vein
Word order: ambiguity (anterolateralis modifies vena, not pontis). V. anterolateralis pontis
A12.3.06.047
V. pontis lateralis
Lateral pontine vein
Word order: ambiguity (lateralis modifies vena, not pontis). V. lateralis pontis

A12.3.06.113 (in Chapter A15)
V. centralis retinae, pars intraocularis
Central retinal vein, intraocular part

Use of punctuation (comma); Inversion of the terms gives the wrong head word. Pars intraocularis v. centralis retinae
Intraocular part of central retinal vein
A12.3.10.026
V. pubica; R. pubicus (V. obturatoria accessoria)
Pubic vein; Pubic branch (Accessory obturator vein)
Use of punctuation (parentheses); The terms are not synonyms.
Creation of a new entity A12.3.10.032 (Vena obturatoria accessoria).

A13.3.00.001
Nodi lymphoidei capitis et colli
Lymph nodes of head and neck

Use of conjunction (et). Nodi lymphoidei craniocervicales
A13.3.03.016
Nodi gastrici dextri/sinistri
Right/left gastric nodes
Use of punctuation (/). Nodi gastrici
Gastric nodes
A13.3.03.018
Nodi gastroomentales dextri/sinistri
Right/left gastro-omental nodes
Use of punctuation (/).  Nodi gastroomentales
Gastro-omental nodes
A13.3.03.042
Nodi colici dextri/medii/sinistri
Right/middle/left colic nodes
Use of punctuation (/). Nodi colici
Colic nodes
A14.1.01.003
Leptomeninx; Arachnoidea mater et pia mater
Leptomeninx; Arachnoid mater and pia mater
Use of conjunction (et) Delete Latin synonym
A14.1.03.004
Metencephalon; Pons et cerebellum
Metencephalon; Pons and cerebellum
Use of conjunction (et) Delete Latin synonym
A14.1.09.201
Facies medialis et inferior hemispherii cerebri
Medial and inferior surfaces of cerebral hemisphere
Use of conjunction (et). Facies inferomedialis hemispherii cerebri
A14.1.09.266
Nuclei septales et structurae pertinentes
Septal nuclei and related structures
Use of conjunction (et) Nuclei septales
Septal nuclei
A14.1.09.335
Stratum moleculare et substratum lacunosum
Lacunar-molecular layer
Use of conjunction (et). Stratum lacunosum moleculare
A14.1.09.407
Nucleus amygdalae basalis lateralis
Basolateral amygdaloid nucleus
Word order: ambiguity (lateralis, basalis modifies nucleus, not amygdalae). Nucleus basalis lateralis amygdalae
A14.1.09.408
Nucleus amygdalae basalis medialis
Basomedial amygdaloid nucleus
Word order: ambiguity (medialis, basalis modifies nucleus, not amygdalae). Nucleus basalis medialis amygdalae
A14.1.09.409
Nucleus amygdalae centralis
Central amygdaloid nucleus
Word order: ambiguity (centralis modifies nucleus, not amygdalae). Nucleus centralis amygdalae
A14.1.09.410
Nucleus amygdalae corticalis
Cortical amygdaloid nucleus
Word order: ambiguity (corticalis modifies nucleus, not amygdalae). Nucleus corticalis amygdalae
A14.1.09.411
Nucleus amygdalae interstitialis
Interstitial amygdaloid nucleus
Word order: ambiguity (interstitialis modifies nucleus, not amygdalae). Nucleus interstitialis amygdalae
A14.1.09.412
Nucleus amygdalae lateralis
Lateral amygdaloid nucleus
Word order: ambiguity (lateralis modifies nucleus, not amygdalae). Nucleus lateralis amygdalae
A14.1.09.413
Nucleus amygdalae medialis
Medial amygdaloid nucleus
Word order: ambiguity (medialis modifies nucleus, not amygdalae). Nucleus medialis amygdalae
A14.1.09.501
Nuclei basales et structurae pertinentes
Basal nuclei and related structures
Use of conjunction (et) (1) Nuclei basales
Basal nuclei
(2) Creation of a new entity.
A14.1.09.572
Substantia alba telencephali
White matter of telencephalon; Cerebral white matter
A14.1.09.532
Radiatio thalami centralis
Central thalamic radiation
Word order: ambiguity (centralis modifies radiatio, not thalami). Radiatio centralis thalami
A14.1.09.619
Cellulae dopaminergicae zonae medialis et areae anterioris hypothalamicae [A14]
Dopaminergic cells in medial zone and anterior area of hypothalamus [A14]
Use of conjunction (et).  Cellulae dopaminergicae hypothalami anteromedialis
A14.1.09.621
Cellulae serotonergicae nuclei raphes pallidi [B1]
Serotonergic cells in pallidal raphe nucleus [B1]
Word order: ambiguity (pallidi modifies nuclei,
not raphes).
Cellulae serotonergicae nuclei pallidi raphes [B1]
A14.1.09.622
Cellulae serotonergicae nuclei raphes obscuri [B2]
Serotonergic cells of obscurus raphe nucleus [B2]
Word order: ambiguity (obscuri modifies nuclei, not raphes). Cellulae serotonergicae nuclei obscuri raphes
A14.1.09.623
Cellulae serotonergicae nuclei raphes magni [B3]
Serotonergic cells of magnus raphe nucleus [B3]
Word order: ambiguity (magni modifies nuclei, not raphes). Cellulae serotonergicae nuclei magni raphes
A14.1.09.624
Cellulae serotonergicae vicinae nuclei vestibularis medialis et nuclei prepositi [B4]
Serotonergic cells adjacent to medial vestibular nucleus and prepositus nucleus [B4]
Use of conjunction (et). Cellulae serotonergicae areae vestibularis
A14.1.09.626
Cellulae serotonergicae nuclei raphes mediani [B6]
Serotonergic cells of median raphe nucleus [B6]
Word order: ambiguity (mediani modifies nuclei, not raphes). Cellulae serotonergicae nuclei mediani raphes
A14.1.09.627
Cellulae serotonergicae nuclei raphes dorsalis [B7]
Serotonergic cells of dorsal raphe nucleus [B7]
Word order: ambiguity (dorsalis modifies nuclei, not raphes). Cellulae serotonergicae nuclei posterioris raphes

A14.1.09.628
Cellulae adrenergicae areae postremae et nuclei reticularis anterioris [C1, C2]
Adrenergic cells in area postrema and anterior reticular nucleus; Epinephric cells in area postrema and anterior reticular nucleus [C1, C2]
Use of conjunction (et). Cellulae adrenergicae myelencephali
A14.1.09.631
Cellulae cholinergicae globi pallidi, nuclei accumbentis et gyri diagonalis [Ch2]
Cholinergic cells of globus pallidus, accumbens nucleus and diagonal gyrus [Ch2]
Use of punctuation (comma) and conjunction (et) Cellulae cholinergicae aggregationis secundae partis basalis telencephali
A14.1.09.632
Cellulae cholinergicae globi pallidi, nuclei accumbentis et striae diagonalis [Ch3]
Cholinergic cells of globus pallidus, accumbens nucleus and diagonal band [Ch3]
Use of punctuation (comma) and conjunction (et) Cellulae cholinergicae aggregationis tertiae partis basalis telencephali
A14.1.09.633
Cellulae cholinergicae substantiae innominatae, nuclei basalis, corporis amygdaloidei et tuberculi olfactorii [Ch4]
Cholinergic cells of substantia innominata, basal nucleus, amygdaloid body and olfactory tubercle [Ch4]
Use of punctuation (comma) and conjunction (et) Cellulae cholinergicae aggregationis quartae partis basalis telencephali
A14.2.01.010
Ramus ad ganglion ciliare; Radix parasympathica ganglii ciliaris; Radix oculomotoria ganglii ciliaris
Branch to ciliary ganglion; Parasympathetic root of ciliary ganglion; Oculomotor root of ciliary ganglion
Use of preposition (ad). Ramus ganglionaris ciliaris nervi oculomotorii; etc.
Branch of oculomotor nerve to ciliary ganglion; etc.
A14.2.01.019
R. communicans cum nervo zygomatico
Communicating branch with zygomatic nerve
Use of preposition (cum). Ramus communicans zygomaticus
A14.2.01.026
R. communicans cum ganglio ciliari; Radix sensoria ganglii ciliaris; Radix nasociliaris ganglii ciliaris
Communicating branch with ciliary ganglion; Sensory root of ciliary ganglion; Nasociliary root of ciliary ganglion
Use of preposition (cum). Ramus ganglionaris ciliaris nervi nasociliaris; etc.
Branch of nasociliary nerve to ciliary ganglion; etc.
A14.2.01.039
Rr. ganglionares ad ganglion pterygopalatinum; Radix sensoria ganglii pterygopalatini
Ganglionic branches to pterygopalatine ganglion; Sensory root of pterygopalatine ganglion
Use of prepostion (ad). Rami ganglionares pterygopalatini nervi maxillaris; etc.
Branches of maxillary nerve to pterygopalatine ganglion; etc.
A14.2.01.067
Rr. ganglionares ad ganglion oticum; Radix sensoria ganglii otici
Branches to otic ganglion; Sensory root of otic ganglion
Use of preposition (ad). Rami ganglionares otici nervi mandibularis; etc.
Branches of mandibular nerve to otic ganglion; etc.
A14.2.01.078
Rr. communicantes cum nervo faciale
Communicating branches with facial nerve
Use of preposition (cum). Rami communicantes faciales
A14.2.01.083
Rr. communicantes cum nervo hypoglosso
Communicating branches with hypoglossal nerve
Use of preposition (cum). Rami communicantes hypoglossi
A14.2.01.087
Rr. ganglionares ad ganglion submandibulare; Radix sensoria ganglii submandibularis
Ganglionic branches to submandibular ganglion; Sensory root of submandibular ganglion
Use of preposition (ad). Rami ganglionares submandibulares nervi mandibularis, etc.
Branches of mandibular nerve to submandibular ganglion; etc.
A14.2.01.088
Rr. ganglionares ad ganglion sublinguale; Radix sensoria ganglii sublingualis
Ganglionic branches to sublingual ganglion; Sensory root of sublingual ganglion
Use of preposition (ad). Rami ganglionares sublinguales nervi mandibularis; etc.
Branches of mandibular nerve to sublingual ganglion; etc.

A14.2.01.107
R. communicans cum nervo glossopharyngeo
Communicating branch with glossopharyngeal nerve

Use of preposition (cum). Ramus communicans glossopharyngeus
A14.2.01.119
R. communicans cum plexu tympanico
Communicating branch with tympanic plexus
Use of preposition (cum). Ramus communicans tympanicus
A14.2.01.120
R. communicans cum nervus vago
Communicating branch with vagus nerve
Use of preposition (cum). Ramus communicans vagus
A14.2.01.143
R. communicans cum ramo auriculare nervi vagi
Communicating branch with auricular branch of vagus nerve
Use of preposition (cum). Ramus communicans vagoauricularis
A14.2.01.150
R. communicans cum ramo meningeo
Communicating branch with meningeal branch
Use of preposition (cum); Absence of indication that the meningeal is a branch of the vagus nerve.  Ramus communicans vagomeningeus
Communicating branch with meningeal branch of vagus nerve
A14.2.01.151
R. communicans cum nervo auriculotemporali
Communicating branch with auriculotemporal nerve
Use of preposition (cum). Ramus communicans auriculotemporalis
A14.2.01.152
R. communicans cum chorda tympani
Communicating branch with chorda tympani
Use of preposition (cum). Ramus communicans chordae tympani
A14.2.01.163
R. communicans cum nervo laryngeo recurrente
Communicating branch with recurrent laryngeal nerve
Use of preposition (cum). Ramus communicans laryngei recurrentis
A14.2.01.193
R. communicans cum nervo glossopharyngeo
Communicating branch with glossopharyngeal nerve
Use of preposition (cum). Ramus communicans glossopharyngeus
A14.2.03.026
N. cutaneus antebrachii lateralis
Lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm; Lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve
Word order: ambiguity (lateralis modifies nervus, not antebrachii). Nervus cutaneus lateralis antebrachii
A14.2.03.027
N. cutaneus brachii medialis
Medial cutaneous nerve of arm; Medial brachial cutaneous nerve
Word order: ambiguity (medialis modifies nervus, not brachii). Nervus cutaneus medialis brachii
A14.2.03.028
N. cutaneus antebrachii medialis
Medial cutaneous nerve of forearm; Medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve
Word order: ambiguity (medialis modifies nervus, not antebrachii). Nervus cutaneus medialis antebrachii
A14.2.03.037
R. communicans cum nervo ulnari
Communicating branch with ulnar nerve
Use of preposition (cum). Ramus communicans ulnaris
A14.2.03.051
N. cutaneus brachii lateralis inferior
Inferior lateral cutaneous nerve of arm; Inferior lateral brachial cutaneous nerve
Word order: ambiguity (lateralis and inferior modify nervus, not brachii). Nervus cutaneus lateralis inferior brachii
A14.2.03.061
N. cutaneus brachii lateralis superior
Superior lateral cutaneous nerve of arm; Superior lateral brachial cutaneous nerve
Word order: ambiguity (lateralis and superior modify nervus, not brachii). Nervus cutaneus lateralis superior brachii
A14.2.06.001
Nervi sacrales et nervus coccygeus [S1-S5, Co]
Sacral nerves and coccygeal nerve [S1-S5, Co]
Use of conjunction (et). (1) Nervi sacrococcygei
(2) Creation of a new entity.
A14.2.06.008
Nervi sacrales
Sacral nerves
(3) Creation of an entry for nervus coccygeus (A14.2.07.043) in
section A14.2.06.
A14.2.07.048
N. cutaneus surae lateralis
Lateral sural cutaneous nerve
Word order: ambiguity (lateralis modifies nervus, not surae). N. cutaneus lateralis surae
A14.2.07.061
N. cutaneus surae medialis
Medial sural cutaneous nerve
Word order: ambiguity (medialis modifies nervus, not surae). N. cutaneus medialis surae
A14.3.03.001
Plexus viscerales et ganglia visceralia
Peripheral autonomic plexuses and ganglia
Use of conjunction (et). (1) Plexus viscerales
Peripheral autonomic plexuses
(2) Creation of a new entity
A14.2.00.046
Ganglion viscerale
Peripheral autonomic ganglion; Visceral ganglion

A15.2.00.001
Oculus et structurae pertinentes
Eye and related structures
Use of conjunction (et).  Oculus
Eye
A15.2.07.033
Angulus oculi lateralis
Lateral angle of eye
Word order: ambiguity (lateralis modifies angulus, not oculi). Angulus lateralis oculi
A15.2.07.034
Angulus oculi medialis
Medial angle of eye
Word order: ambiguity (medialis modifies angulus, not oculi). Angulus medialis oculi
A15.3.02.021
Aditus ad antrum mastoideum
Aditus to mastoid antrum
Use of preposition (ad). Aditus antri mastoidei
A15.3.03.137
V. modioli communis
Common modiolar vein
Word order: ambiguity (communis modifies vena, not modioli). V. communis modioli